How to Get Noticed on Twitter — 15 Tips for Writers

I follow major publications I’d like to write for sometimes. Great sources. Really successful writers. But otherwise, if you follow everyone, when you scan your tweetstream it’s just not useful in delivering interesting information I want to read.

Amazon Employees Need Writing Skills: Should MBA Programs Require Writing Courses?

Incredibly, Amazon, the business that hires more MBAs each year than any other employer around the world—about double the number hired by runner-up McKinsey & Company—forbids presentations. What’s more, that Seattle firm even precludes the use of its neighbor Microsoft’s charts-and-graphs software, PowerPoint, during meetings as well.

Amazon is home to the chief executive that the Yale School of Management’s Dean Jeffrey Sonnenfeld selected as his “CEO of the Decade,” Jeff Bezos. But America’s biggest retailer isn’t the only mega-company with such a policy. Both billion-dollar firms run by beloved Silicon Valley figure Jack Dorsey—Twitter and Stripe—also focus most meetings on discussions of memos.

Twitter for Writers: Your 15-Step Crash Course

1. Get a useful handle.

If your name is already taken (this reader’s problem), maybe you have a cool branding thing you could do, like my tweep Stefanie Flaxman @RevisionFairy, or my franchise-consultant friend Joel Libava @FranchiseKing. Or you could put an underline in your name like @Carol_Tice. Takeaway: You can put key words about what you do right into your handle.

2. Fill out your profile completely.

Really, it takes maybe five minutes. And it’s so, so important. Why? People search on words they’re interested in on Twitter, and if you have them in your profile, you will appear in their search results. Stuff it with key words about what you do, up to the limit of what it will accept. Mine includes: freelance writer, copywriter, journalist, Top 10 Blogs for Writers winner, writing, helping writers earn, business. If you want to connect with people in your town, include your location.

3. Provide a link to your website.

If you do not have a writer website yet, link to your LinkedIn profile or your Facebook page. Something — anything! Profiles with no links people can follow to learn more are ignored. There really is no excuse for not having a writer website these days, when you can have a WordPress site for $99 from the National Association of Independent Writers & Editors (NAIWE) up and running in about the next 10 minutes. But whatever you do, get your clips organized somewhere and post a link to that site on Twitter.

4. Add a profile photo.

Preferably, a good little photo of you. Or maybe a fun cartoon gravatar of you. But kill off that egg — spammers all have those (I actually just blocked three of them this evening), so you’re giving your profile a very bad connotation sticking with the egg.

5. Don’t use robots to get followers.

If you search on “get Twitter followers,” you will find lots of offers of products that promise to automatically get you hundreds of followers overnight. Don’t use them. Why? These followers are useless — they don’t really want to follow you, and won’t retweet your links.

6. Search for influential people in your niche, and follow them.

There are thousands of people this reader could be following on Twitter. You’ve never followed “all you could.” Many of the top people automatically follow you back if you follow them. Identify the key people and start building a list.

7. Stop constantly marketing yourself.

Twitter isn’t a channel to constantly blare about what you’re doing — it’s just considered bad form. You’ll need to mix links to your own blog posts in with other useful information from other sources in your niche. Once you’re following thought leaders in your topic, you can just scan down your Tweetstream and quickly find things to retweet. Or use SmartBriefs to find interesting articles, or Google Alerts. Presto! You are interesting enough to get followers now. But stop making it all about you, because that’s why no one is interested.

8. Watch your follower/following ratio.

Once you start to accumulate a few hundred followers, it’s time to cut back your list of who you’re following. That’s because just like the ratio of good to bad cholesterol, your ratio of followers to people you’re following is important. When you have substantially more followers than you do people you follow, it tells people you’re interesting. You don’t have to follow people to get them to follow you. That attracts more followers.

9. Promote other people.

10. Use hashtags.

Know how to help your content get found by using hashtags. For instance, if you’d like other writers to see your link, you might post it on #WW (Writer Wednesday), or if you’d like to flatter someone else by promoting them you could mention them on #FF (Follow Friday). People search on these hashtags for content they might be interested in, such as #writer, #writercommunity, #business, #blog.

11. Use lists.

One great way to stay connected to people without having to follow them is by adding them to your lists. For instance, I have probably 800 writers on lists, and 150 thought leaders that might be good future story sources in a “gurus” list. Many people are flattered by getting into lists, so this is another weapon you have besides following.

12. Get a nice background.

People who really operate on Twitter take the time to at least grab a free, unique Twitter background to spice up their site. The really together people have pictures of their products, website logos, and other cool stuff.

13. Understand how other forms of social media work.

When I read “I linked Facebook too I believe,” it leads me to suspect that you don’t understand how other social-media channels work, either. Since coordinating your work in several social-media channels can save you time and help accelerate the level of help you get, you’ll want to learn how Facebook works, too.

In review

If you already excel at all nine of these social media skills, congratulations—you still have work to do. Social is a career path of lifelong learning, and continuing to hone these skills will benefit you at every stage of your career.

I look at skill development as a way to buy yourself time for other things. For example, if you’re already highly organized and efficient, you can spend more time developing one of your weaker skills, building your personal brand through speaking engagements or preparing to move into people management. Additionally, mastery in one area might open the door to your next career move—for example, if you’re phenomenal at data analysis, perhaps you’d make a great social strategist! Or if connection is your jam, you might be an incredible community manager.

Rachael is the Manager of Social Media at Sprout Social and was a mega Sprout fan and user prior to joining the team. Her main focus is to strategize and maintain our own social presence. Outside of work, Rachael is an avid squirrel enthusiast and massive meme-aholic!


Quick Grammar Tips To Help Improve Your Writing

A couple of simple mistakes I see people make all the time are choosing wrong when they’re trying to decide between affect or effect and between further or farther.Most of the time, affect is a verb and effect is a noun, so if you could substitute another verb (such as helped or hurt), choose affect, and if you can put an article in front of the word (such as the effect was stunning), choose effect.In American English, further is typically used for metaphorical distances (We won’t discuss this further) and farther is typically used for physical distances (How much farther is Boston?)

How to Improve Grammar? [Tips, Ways, & Rules Included]

Academic writing depends on the grammar & vocabulary of a person, as having a good command of them makes your sentences clear and understandable. The various details related to the time, place, who did what, who said to whom, etc., can be cleared only by using the correct grammar form.

Most students seek grammar tips that can help them write better quality academic papers with proper meaning & perspectives. That’s why the experts of Global Assignment Help are here with beneficial tips & rules that can assist you in composing the best essay for your college-level submission. Let’s start our journey with elements of grammar that can help in creating meaningful sentences.

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Reasons To Be Proud You’re From New York City

25 Reasons To Be Proud You're From New York City

The greatest city in the world is undeniably New York City. At times, we have all hated living in New York City. From the rat invested subways to the overly enthusiastic tourists, many New Yorkers seem to forget why so many people are in awe whenever they see those skyscrapers for the first time. Whether you were born in the big city, lived here your whole life or you just moved here recently, here are 25 reasons to remind you of why you should be proud you’re from the Big Apple.

Grammar Mistake 1: Falling in Love with “They”

For another option that may be more elegant than the sometimes-clunky “his or her,” I often suggest alternating use of the male pronoun with the female—employing “his” in one paragraph and “her” in the next.

This one gets under my skin. I’m not sure why it bothers me so much but I think it’s because people often think they’re being more learned by using “and I”—no matter the context. Maybe I’m afraid they’re judging me when I’m actually correct. Maybe I need to be a little less judgmental myself.

Still, you want to use correct grammar on your blog. That’s why you’ll want to use “Sophie and I” when “I” is a subject pronoun” (“I” am doing something) and “Sophie and me” for the object pronoun (something is being done to us).

For the record—and in case you are wondering—Sophie is my labradoodle. And, truthfully, I generally leave the rabbit chasing to her alone, despite any impression I may have given you that I chase rabbits.

Grammar Tips for Students to Compose College Level of Writing!

It can be difficult for students to use proper grammar in their writing. That’s why here are the essay helpers with grammar tips for college students to support them with better knowledge of grammar use.

You must use the active voice more often than using the passive voice. The passive voice creates a wordy sentence that provides information in a complex way.

The modifiers give extra detail of the main topic, for example, a vegetarian sandwich and a pink pen. This way, you can share a better level of data for the subject.

Understand that commas are used as a mark of separation within the sentence, whereas semicolons are used to connect independent clauses. So, use these properties properly and make your sentence perfect.

You should know the difference between words with the same pronunciation; for example, there, they’re, and there. These three words almost sound similar but have different meanings & usage. So, increase your vocabulary knowledge to use these terms correctly.

You will write a lot of essays in your college. So, it is vital to know that how you can refer to yourself in the writing. Using your name is not possible & correct in every sentence, so use the pronouns in place of your name; for example, I, my, me, or myself.

There are eight parts of speech- noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection, out of which we have discussed above. Every student has to learn the implementation of parts of speech in order to create the best essay for submission.

Above are the various grammar tips that can help you maintain a better flow & error-less paper for submission. College may give a lot of writing burden to you that you can decrease with our essay helpers. They will provide you with the best-written document that will be grammatically perfect & impressive.

Writing Tips from Bloggers for Bloggers

My No. 1 blog writing tip: Assume that people will be skimming your post, and likely reading less than 30 percent of it. Rather than fighting against this behavior, work with it.

Include lots of ways for people to enter into a piece—subheads, quotes, numbered or bulleted lists, images and graphs, bold text, or anything else that can help people take away some of the value quickly.

If readers see enough that sparks their interest, they’ll save it for later, or slow down and read it from beginning to end (if you’re lucky!).

Jane Friedman

Frances Caballo

Ginger Moran

When I blog I look for the natural divisions in the piece I am already writing. We hear about the importance of bullets and numbered lists to encourage reader retention as they scan your work to decide if they want to dive in, but where do those features come from?

When I look at how the piece is actually emerging a lot of times I can find the real internal structure and then the best way to design the piece comes from that.

Stuart Horwitz

Spend as much time on the title as you do on the blog. The title is what readers will see in their email. If it doesn’t intrigue them enough, they won’t open the email.

Michael Larsen

Speak to Their ‘Closeted’ Selves: Tough guys hide their gentle-as-a-kitten side, used car salespeople can be surprisingly honest and kindergarten teachers think some truly nasty thoughts.

Writing to your audience’s ‘secret’ self is a great way to have some fun, tell the truth and let your people know that you GET them. Readers love to feel seen, heard and understood, and when you can give voice to their secret thoughts, you create both intimacy and loyalty.


Why You Should Use Custom Essay Writing Services

When it comes to submitting a college essay, a custom essay service is a viable alternative for students who find it too overwhelming. While some students may feel that hiring a writing service is a waste of money, the benefits of using one are well worth the cost. Here are some reasons why you should hire a custom essay service instead of doing your homework yourself. You will be able to receive a top-notch piece of writing in a short amount of time, without the added stress of trying to meet deadlines and submit papers to a strict deadline.

custom essay service

The price of a custom essay service is important, but remember that it’s not the only factor that should be considered. The quality of the paper is another important factor. A good custom essay service will make sure to meet your expectations. The price should reflect the quality of the work you receive. A good custom essay service will offer the kind of writing you need, and will even provide an order form for you to fill out. The process is easy. Once you’ve completed your order form, you can proceed to make the payment. Typically, you’ll need to pay 50% of the total, but that’s normal. You’ll pay the remaining amount when the paper is completed.

A custom essay service should always be on time. Most of the time, you’ll have the option to select a deadline for your essay. If you choose a ten-day deadline, you’ll likely have to pay extra to ensure your essay arrives on time. Then, you can choose the type of paper you need to have. In most cases, you’ll be able to choose from a wide range of topics, and you’ll never have to worry about missing your deadline. You’ll be able to get an A+ for your essay.

Finally, it’s important to consider the price. When buying an essay online, you’ll want to be certain that you’re getting a reliable and affordable custom essay service. You’ll want to choose a website that doesn’t charge too much, offers high-quality work on time, and conducts the ordering process without too much trouble. Ultimately, you’ll get the best grade for your money. Just remember that you’ll be spending a significant amount of money – and you’ll be surprised at how much you’ll be saving.

While a custom essay service will be able to deliver a great-quality paper, you should also be able to compare rates. There are many different types of writing services and you should consider a few before making a final decision. For example, you can choose an essay writer based on the level of education you need to get the grade you need. You can even select a writer based on the number of writers.

While all of these features are desirable, the best custom essay service should also have a good reputation. Look for a website that uses responsive design. A legit professional writing service will offer you fast access to information and free revisions. In addition to the quality of the paper, you should also look for a company that offers lucrative discounts. If you are unsure about the credibility of a particular company, it’s important to check out customer reviews online.

You should avoid scams. A custom essay service should offer you a plagiarism-free paper. Choosing a reputable company will help you avoid the hassles and high costs of submitting a poor paper. The quality of the content is another important factor. A custom essay writing service should be able to provide the information you need. When you use a reputable custom essay writing service, you’ll get a top-notch paper.

While you’re looking for a custom essay writing service, don’t be afraid to ask for references. Ask friends and family if they have used a certain service and what their experience was like. You can also post on active forums and ask people to leave reviews to help other students. A good review is vital when it comes to selecting a custom essay writing service. So, be sure to read through the reviews and testimonials carefully to make sure the company you’re dealing with is reputable.

How to Find Essay Writers in Australia and UK

What to Look for in an Essay Writer

You will find many writers offering their services to students. However, are they all qualified? Not all writers can deliver quality work. If you want the best, these qualities are a must-have when looking for one.

  • Punctuality

College essays have a deadline within which you should have finished and submitted the paper to the examiner. You may have too much on your hands. You may also have forgotten about an assignment, and time is running out. Asking for time extension may not work out for you, and you need to look for an alternative fast.

The essay writers in Australia and UK are your answer to your dilemma. They can write assignments using the shortest time possible. A standard essay can take up to three hours to complete, while other complex papers can take 3-5 days. If a writer cannot deliver a paper on time, you may fail to meet the deadline, and that is why you should go for one who is an excellent timekeeper.

  • Proficient in Grammar

An essay with grammatical errors puts off the reader even before they reach the main body. It would help if you had a writer who can deliver quality work free of grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. You can find essay writers in the Philippines who are native English speakers or those proficient in English.

  • Experienced

How long a writer has served in the industry also matters. Apart from that, the professional level they attained determines whether you will hire them or not. Before you hire the services of an essay writer Australia, you will have to look at the profile of various writers to know which one fits your expectations.

  • Prompt in Response

When looking for assistance, you need the service provider to reach out to you and solve your issue quickly. A London essay writer would be a reliable one. Once you contact one, you will receive a quick response. When checking for your paper’s progress, it will not take ages to get answers.

  • Has a Revision Policy

It is not all the time that a paper will turn out as you had ordered for it. You may find that it may be lacking some information or have overlooked some guidelines and need a review on it. That is why the essay writers in Dubai promise to revise your paper for an unlimited number of times for a specified period.

  • Versatile

The types of essays you need to write in college are many. When you are looking for essay writing services, ensure the writer can handle multiple kinds of papers such as standard essays, dissertations, case studies, and research papers. The essay writers in the UK can handle various subjects allowing them to work on any paper you present.


You may not always be in a position to write all your academic essays. That is why you need to understand the qualities of a good writer so that you know what to look for when you make a call to them. Once you know the kind of writer you want, the search will be a fast and easy one.

6 Hacks on How to Write an Essay on the History of Technological Progress

Many students hate essay writing because of their stress. However, you should have it in mind that essay writing is an assessment task in college. It is used to assess your understanding of a topic.

For instance, let us consider the history of technological progress as an essay topic. If you are given a paper to write on this topic, you should focus on past information and find a way of presenting your ideas in a clear form. Write the essay in good language for the reader to comprehend your ideas better.

Understand your audience, so you can know how to present ideas in a presentable form. We have suggested several tips on how to write an essay. Use our suggested tips to write an excellent essay on the topic.

  • Understand Your Audience 

The first step of any essay writing process is to understand the audience. Many students think that their instructors are their audience. This is a wrong assumption. Your work can be read by many when published. Do not limit your audience to your instructor alone. Think of other people as your audience.

  • Choose An Eye-Catching Topic. 

In some cases, when you are not given a topic to write on, you should write an eye-catching topic. This will make the readers curious about your essay content. Your instructor’s interest also arises with an eye-catching topic.

  • Be Clear And Precise By Using The Best Translation Service 

Try to carry your readers along in your essay by writing an essay in simple and clear English. Adhere to the grammar rules when writing your essay and check for grammatical errors. Do not use too much vocabulary and professional terms in your essay.

Essay writing is an uneasy and time-consuming task that can eat up both your money and time. To avoid time wastage, get the best translation services from websites that provide these services for college students at an affordable price. Provide your requirements, and the deadline on any of those platforms to select a writer who will write a high-quality translation assignment at an affordable price in a short time.

  • Be Convincing With Your Argument 

You should provide relevant points to prove your stand on any essay topic. This will convince the reader that you have a better understanding of the subject. Otherwise, your reader will not trust your work, and your paper becomes a waste. Support your argument by either ethics or logical reasons.

  • Write With The Recommended Writing Style

Before you proceed to essay writing, make findings on the style that your college approves. Different colleges use different styles, such as APA and MLA. Consult your instructor to determine which of the style is recommended. Provide citations of all sources used in your writing to make your paper relevant.

Many students hate essay writing because of its formatting and writing styles. You can save yourself the stress of essay writing by using translation services for college students. To use this service, enter all required details about your assignment and deadline, then hire someone to write a paper at an affordable price in a short time.

  • Revise And Edit 

After you might have completed the writing, read the entire essay to check for grammatical errors. Ask a friend to read the essay, and ask for his suggestions on the writing. Use his recommendations to edit your work.


When writing an essay topic like the history of technological progress, be clear, and organize your ideas in a nice format. You should use our above-suggested tips to write an outstanding essay. You can also hire a translator to write your translation assignment.

The UKGovOSS network is here to bring together all those involved in open source and open standards in the public sector.

We’ve set up this space to continue the discussion which started at Public Sector Forums’ Local Government Open Source Conference in April 2009. This social networking community is the first part of an ongoing resource being developed by PSF.

Joining our community is free – simply register and fill in your basic profile information.

Joining lets you:

  • Create your own profile page so members can learn more about you
  • Meet and interact with other members
  • Join special interest groups – or create your own
  • Take part in public and private forum discussions
  • Stay on top of the action with email updates
  • Want to start your own blog about open source? Create one here.

This is an experimental essay so any comments, feedback and suggestions are very welcome.

We look forward to you joining our community!

Europe Still Brings Up the Rear in Average Broadband Use

The telecommunication industry is rapidly growing, from technical infrastructure to innovative product and service delivery. There are tremendous market opportunities in the industry that leads to a country’s’ economic growth.

OpenVault, a leading data analytics and service provider company, completes its year-on-year comparisons for the second quarter of 2018. According to the report, the average broadband usage in Europe is lagging behind the United States. The data collected by the analytics show the average usage per household in Europe is growing at a much slower rate of 19.5%. The 19.5% growth rate over the past twelve months that did end on June 30, 2018, is disappointing compared to the average growth rate of 31% recorded in the United States.

The United States has over 80 million broadband subscribers making it the largest broadband market in the world. Broadband technology is a crucial investment in the US with new technologies developing like HFC upgrades and fiber deployment. The market players are emphasizing developing 5G technologies that will facilitate the satisfaction of their customers.

The various market payers have developed DOCSIS3.1 services that provide customers that require bandwidths of 1 Gb/s and above. The telecoms companies in the U.S are looking to expand their services and reach more customers. To fully reap the benefits of digital technology the telecoms companies are looking into ways broadband networks can improve the education, health and energy sectors.

In Europe, there is approximately 46% percent of power users in several households that use a bandwidth greater than 1 TB. The number is growing significantly over the years, but the figure is still low compared to the United States. The 46% percentage of power users is equal to a fifth of the 2.5% of households – power Users in the United States.

As Netflix becomes widespread across the region, the Europe broadband market is growing steadily as more citizens hope to access IP content. As households opt for services such as video streaming instead of cable T.V, the delivery of broadband services need to be upgraded. The DSL based technology that can deliver symmetrical speeds of up to 1 Gb/s remains at the trial stage. Due to high installation and subscription cost, the subscriber base has slowed. Operators are still stuck at deploying copper-based Ethernet connection in a bid to improve data rates instead of opting for fiber technology. The European Commission hopes to provide 300 Mb/s by 2020 to all regions, schools, governments, and libraries. There is an ambitious target to access 5G technology by 2025.

According to OpenVault, there is a global growth rate of 30% on household broadband usage. If the telecommunications companies incorporate Usage Based billing, they will generate more revenue and reduce the stress felt by their networks. Globally, as of 30th June 2018, the annual average usage per household was 226.4 GB. These being an exponential growth compared to the ordinary usage recorded in the first quarter year of 2018.

The leading analytics company, OpenVault LLC, identifies Usage Based billing as the answer to curbing network strains and facilitating usage growth. An increase in network demand forces the market players to incorporate ‘capex’ to meet the demand. Usage-based billing will help the companies avoid capex thus leading to increase revenue.

Currently, operators that provide flat-rate pricing or Non-UBB have a 12.2% high average usage compared to their UBB operators. Over the years, customers using flat-rate tariffs recorded a 34% usage growth.

In conclusion, Europe should seek guidance from the OpenVault on tracking their data usage and in providing better management for the broadband networks.


Copywriting Techniques to Boost Email Conversions

Taking a look at the number of emails a person can receive on the daily, it’s hard to imagine that your company’s email will be noticed. People don’t like wasting their time, so if they are flooded with emails, chances are they won’t really be tempted to spend too much time on yours or even open it.

Copywriting is one of the methods that can efficiently improve the likelihood of your message being read all the way through and be successful as well. Don’t really know how to do it? Here are some copywriting tips to grow your email conversions but that not the only way to increase your email conversation skills, you can read those email essays, so them might help you.

  • Add a P.S.

A P.S. at the end of the email can be a great way to grab the reader’s attention. Not only that, but their eyes may first wander around the email and end up reading the P.S. first. But after doing that, they usually end up reading the whole email. Doesn’t that already sound like a great idea?

This is why you should consider adding it at the end of the email so you’re sure the recipient will take interest in what the rest of the message says.

  • Length Doesn’t Matter

You may be afraid that writing a whole novel in an email will scare the recipient away and you’ll lose lots of potential customers that way. As such, your focus may go to making the email shorter, or just have the proper length, and you lose focus from what matters the most – the substance of your writing.

You need to know what to write in order to have the email engaging enough and motivate your potential clients to proceed with accepting your offer. So don’t worry too much about length, but rather about the quality of your email.

  • Have an Attention-Grabbing Subject

First impressions matter, and what is the first thing a person sees when checking their email inbox? That’s right, the subject of the email. Although the content matters, the subject is just as relevant, if not more. This is why you need to come up with a good one which will actually convince the recipient to open the email.

Therefore, it should not be dull. Add 1-2 numbers to the title, as well as a benefit of your offer, and you have greater chances to make them click on that email.

  • Personalize Your Emails

This can be a little time-consuming, but it’s a good technique if you want your copy to pay off. A personalized email may be more effective in that regard because you took the time to adjust the message to fit the person you send it to. For instance, you can address the person by the name, which will automatically make the reader feel like they’ve been connected with another person and not a robot. It’s a great strategy which can boost conversions.

  • Make an Interesting Headline

Something you really should not forget is that even emails need to be properly structured if you want them to boost conversions. You can’t just slap a wall of text there and call it a day.

That being said, you need to add a headline at the top of the email, in which you must grab the attention of the reader and make him more eager to read the rest. Give them a hint about what they can obtain, thus creating some mystery and intriguing the reader. This can successfully increase your conversion rate.

Final Thoughts

Boosting email conversions is not the easiest thing indeed, but by using some copywriting techniques, you should be able to change that. Use this guide’s advice next time you create an email draft, and you’ll have more success.

Analysis of Strategic Position of Tesla Motors

The main aim of this paper is to analyze the strategic position of Tesla Motors through the key strategy models, which includes, SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces Model in both Tesla’s External and Internal factors.

  1. External factors analysis
  2. PESTEL Analysis

Political: Tesla, just like other automotive companies need to be aware of political patters that influence their business operations. One of such political factor is the United States loan programs for research and development of new car technologies

Economic: some of the economic factors affecting Tesla include the increase in the cost of maintaining of cars largely due to rise in the cost of fuel and the growth of alternative energy (Rothaermel &David, 9). 

Social: Social factors that affect Tesla are mainly concerned on preserving the environment.

Technical: Improving the technology involved in the development of cars is major concern in the operation of Tesla. Technology that has enhanced the development of fully electrical cars with autopilot capabilities.

Environmental: It has been a challenge for car manufacturers to produce fuel-efficient cars r eco-friendly cars.

Legal: There are numerous regulations from the government and the green movement that affect Tesla, they include franchise laws that restrict Tesla from selling cars directly to customers.

  • Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Threat of Entry of new firms: in Tesla’s case, the threat of new entries of firms to the market is low.

Bargaining Power of Tesla’s Buyers: The buyers of Tesla’s care have a moderate bargaining power because Tesla depends on the partnership they have with Toyota and Daimler (Rothaermel &David, 16).

Threat of Substitutes: Threat of substitutes to Tesla’s cars is considerably low since there are very few choices that can substitute Tesla’s cars.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Bargaining power of the suppliers for Tesla is very high because Tesla is dependent on its suppliers.

The intensity of rivalry in the industry: within the automated car industry, rivalry is very high, however, in the market that Tesla takes part the rivalry is moderate.

  • SWOT Analysis

Strengths: Tesla has developed electric cars that have the auto-pilot functionality. Tesla also enjoys strong supplies. i.e. Toyota.

Weaknesses: Tesla incurs high cost of production hence their prices are higher than their competitors

Opportunities: There is an increasing support for Tesla’s cars by governments across the globe.

Threats: It is difficult for Tesla to produce, distribute and sell their cars due to their current business model.

b. Internal factors

  1. VRIO Analysis

Valuable: Large manufacturers such as Toyota and Daimler are buying components from Tesla to use in their vehicles

Rare: Tesla’s cars are the only ones that can go up to 300 miles on a single charge

Costly to Imitate: No other company can match Tesla’s technology

Organized: Tesla has partnered with various companies and individual to further develop electric cars

  1. SWOT Analysis

Strengths: Rising of revenues and a bold marketing strategy

Weaknesses:  Large debts and high prices

Opportunities: Rising cost of buying fuel has led to customer to buy electric cars

Threats:  increased government regulations

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Information Technology and Ethics


             This paper analyses the issue of ethical privacy in information technology (IT). To achieve this, the paper identifies a working definition of the term ethics which it applies throughout the paper in relation to privacy issues. The paper relies on defining ethical privacy issues further by defining what IT is, identifying characteristics of IT as well as the ethical privacy responsibilities that arise from the use of IT. The paper is able to provide evidence that, there is an ethical privacy responsibility on both manufacturers and vendors on one hand, and other, the organization and users of any IT system. It is from the healthcare industry that the paper is able to provide evidence on the aforementioned ethical privacy responsibility.

Information Technology and Ethical Privacy Issues


Derived from the Greek word Ethike, the ethic is a term that refers to character drives that make an individual to consistently behave in an accepted manner. This drive is guided by societal terms usually referred to as moral sanctions that are defined by society as to what is good or bad behavior. This differs from legal guidance’s of what is legal or illegal as dictated by laws since ethics is a guide on how behavior is either good or bad. As such, ethics precede law since it is ethics that pushes for the creation of laws towards viewing actions as guided by ethics and thus legally defining what good behavior is. From this, it is evident that morality, value, and ethics should be considered above character since all the elements guide considerations of how actions are understood. That is, ethical or unethical, right or wrong, whether something is valuable or not and whether organizations actions are justified (Schultz, 2005). It is from the aforementioned that the ethical privacy issues related to information technology can be analyzed. This paper will analyze characteristics of information technology (IT) and the ethical privacy issues that arise from these characteristics. In addition, the paper will also identify the challenges that exist as a result of the ethical issues that surround IT.

Characteristics of Information Technology

Rouse (2016) defines IT as both software and hardware used towards the innovation, processing and storage of data, security of the data and processes, and the capabilities of exchanging data. McAfee (2006) expands further on defining IT and categorizes it into function, network and enterprise categories. Under function, IT is considered as a capability that assists personnel to create efficiency in stand-alone tasks while network IT is defined by its capability to provide a channel where different people in different localities can communicate. Function and network IT differ from enterprise IT since the later is used in organizations as either applications and or processes that enable the organization to not only create an identity for itself but also enable the organization to carry out its primary activities effectively (McAfee, 2006).

From the  above, it is evident that IT is dynamic in nature because of the different forms  in which its applied. One factor that is inherent in IT is that regardless of its adaptability to different settings, it is expected to use innovation, processes, and storage of data in its various forms to produce truthful, accurate and trustworthy information  (George, 2008). These expectations are uniform in the function, network and enterprise categories of IT.

Ethical Privacy Issues in Information Technology

Ethical issues associated with IT occur due to the exponential growth in IT use and different forms. This is because the growth has lacked guidance on what is ethical or unethical and as such, developments and innovations in software and hardware have always occurred before the morality, values, and ethics associated with them have been considered (George, 2008). As discussed under the definition of IT, It is from the functional, network and enterprise capabilities, that evidence of IT touching both individuals and organizations is seen. As such, the innovations, processes and data storage associated with IT do consist of information that is meant to be kept secret. However, According to Relkin (2016), privacy and data storage align to security aspects associated with keeping them secret but these controls can be manipulated. Manipulation can take place through hacking, creation of malware and even from the people who have access to all the functions of IT. In addition, the growth of the internet as a part of IT infrastructure has seen innovations that can be manipulated and as such result in breaches in privacy. This includes innovations such as communication and interaction applications over the internet, Use of IT to control physical objects through the Internet of Things (IOT) all work towards breaching the privacy of individuals (Covert, Hamilton, Orebaugh, & Hamilton, 2014). These facts are echoed by Mason (n.d) who argues that IOT creates challenges in property and accessibility rights since they are central to the existence of IT.

Ethical responsibility in information technology

In IT, ethical privacy issues should be considered under two aspects. On one hand, ethics should be considered as hardware, software, and applications and on the other hand, the individuals and organizations that use the software. Under ethical privacy considerations of hardware, software, and application, it should be noted that these three aspects have no ethical responsibility. This is based on the fact that the aforementioned are thought of, created and implemented by individuals and/ or organizations. As such, where the cause of IT hardware, software, and applications emits from their creating and implementation the ethical responsibility should lie squarely with them. For example, where builders of IT hardware are found to have created hardware that inherently shares out private information, it is their sole responsibility to bear liability from any privacy concerns that arise from using their equipment. This principle of liability of unethical privacy behavior should be extended to vendors of software and applications. This is because, if their software systems and applications breach the privacy of users, it is not the software or applications that are in the wrong. It is the vendors who create, maintain and sell their products, which would otherwise be non-existent (George, 2008). This liability should be extended to IOT since creators know fully well the capabilities of their innovations.

The organization and individuals who use IT are also liable where their investments in IT hardware and software lead to unethical behavior. It is the sole liability of each individual who uses a system to ensure that their actions are unethical in light of privacy. For example, it would be the responsibility of an individual to ensure that they do not share data entrusted to them. This will ensure that items such as client or personal information remain private, and where actions are directed towards sharing such information, the liability should lie on the individual

In adding to the above, it is the organization’s obligation to ensure that its employees are trained as to how to use enterprise systems, ethically. This means that organizations should have policies, rules, and regulations that govern how privacy issues are protected. However, where an organization does not have policies, rules or regulations, where issues of ethical privacy issue exist, the responsibility will squarely lie on the organization.

Information Technology in Healthcare Industry

In healthcare settings, the use of IT is used as decision support systems, electronic records and order entries as means of ensuring high quality of healthcare are provided (Chaudhry, et al., 2006). It is evident that by using IT in healthcare, service delivery is efficient and cost effective. While decision support systems gather and interpret data to assist management in their decision-making role, electronic records are used to maintain patient data and their comprehensive heath history. Further, order entries supplement the work of healthcare workers by allowing for the ordering, dispensing and administration of medicine (, 2014).

Where decision support systems, electronic records, and order entries are used, a number of benefits are identifiable. This includes an avenue where policies on the clinical support are analyzed. This is through clinical decisions support systems that allow for informed decisions to be made at the point of care in a timely manner (AHRQ, 2016). Further,the use of the systems will allow for decision makers to allocate resources and reduce costs while improving efficiency in healthcare delivery  (Devaraj & Kohli, 2000).

Electronic record systems are used to record of medical and clinical data thus acting as an avenue of maintaining comprehensive patient history which is shareable amongst all providers involved in the care provision of a patient (, 2014). As such, healthcare organizations benefit from this system since it allows for tracking data, ease in the identification of patients revisiting the facility, monitoring patient responses to new medications and thus, improve the quality of care that the organization provides.

Lastly, order entries have the largest impact as regards the use of IT in healthcare. According to  (Bates, 2000), order entry systems improves safety by not only improving structures of medications by ensuring that medication orders include dosage, route and frequency instructions but also allow for the identification of the orderer as well as allow for information flow back to the orderer. As such. Order systems reduce the rates of medication errors that are evidenced where IT is not used.

Information Technology Ethical Privacy Issues in Healthcare Industry

In as much as the above discussion has reflected on the benefits of using IT in healthcare, it is imperative to note that decision support, electronic records and order entry systems all have a human element that is susceptible to either ethical and or unethical acts. The human element is not only visible in the creation of the systems, but also on the use and reliance of the systems. Thus, all the three divisions of IT in healthcare are faced with ethical issues.

Ethical privacy issues as identified above can arise in light of the creators of software and hardware as well as the organization. Sanou (2014) indicates that in regards of the creators or inventors of IT, decision support system ethical issues arise as a result of the systems being fault tolerant and actual system design. This is because there is a high reliance on their systems as regards clinical decisions as well as management issues. It is only ethical for creators to ensure that their systems contain updated knowledge base, that the employed hardware is capable of delivering expected results, and accuracy of reports that are generated from the system. Further, it is upon the organization’s management to ensure that the systems in use are used ethically. This is only reflected where the organization ensures that users especially physicians are qualified and trained in using the system without breaching the patient’s privacy. It also is the organization to ensure that it has policies in place that guide physicians in the delivery of service especially in areas that require the preference of patients to drive the service delivery  (Sanou, 2014).

The second ethical issue surrounds the electronic records systems where issues of privacy, data are at risk. The nature of this system relies on the collection of patient data in large amounts and is identified as a high-risk area in ethics in light of the above discussion. To this end, both the organization, creators of the system and those who have access, have to act in an ethical manner towards ensuring that records are appropriately disclosed to the relevant parties. Further, the designers of the system have to not only ensure that the data is secure from unauthorized use, but also allow for the relationship between the patient and physician not to be negatively affected (Cushmana, Froomkinb, Cavac, Abrilc, & Goodman, 2010)

The final ethical issue involves order entries systems. Although this system can be considered as part of the electronic system, this paper has provided for it independently due to specific ethical issues it faces. In as much as it is expected the institution will train its staff on how to use this specific IT, order entry systems can be easily manipulated by the user. As such, where the designer and organization have to meet ethical obligations, users have to follow the policies as well as show netiquette. It thus follows the user has does not share any information with unauthorized parties. This is because of the high dollar value given to medications that users of the system may be corrupted by.


The paper has offered an analysis into the ethical privacy values of IT in healthcare. It is evident that these ethical privacy issues are not only found in healthcare but in all industries that employ the use of IT. By comparing why ethics in IT and IT developments do not go hand in hand, the paper has identified that, due to the dynamic nature of IT, organizations have to ensure ethical practices regardless of the lack of laws and regulations that would otherwise offer guidance. In addition, the paper has been able to identify three IT areas in healthcare that face ethical privacy challenges. It is from these areas that it becomes evident that the issue of ethics in healthcare should be considered from the design stage of systems. This should be followed by organizational policies that ensure that the systems are used in an ethical manner by qualified and trained staff. Further, the users should also embrace ethical behavior since it is their input and actions that reflect whether systems are ethical or not.

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